Here is a simple quadtree implementation done in typescript! It is used to improve the performance of collision testing between all of the little circles which get displayed. (Clicking will add more circles).

The majority of the quadtree is implemented in a few classes. Here are the few notable ones to look out for.

More information on a quadtree can be found online, but the idea behind its use here is the same as that of a binary tree. We keep subdividing the canvas into fourths, so that we can lessen the area we need to consider during collision checking. 3D physics engines commonly use an oct-tree, which divides 3-dimensional space into 8ths.

Take a look at how collisions are processed to speed up the simulation (QuadTree.UpdateRecursive). Normally, you'd have to test each ball against every other ball at n^2 efficiency. With a quadtree, we can walk down each branch of the tree, only considering collisions between objects in the current tree node and parent nodes. The worst case scenario would be an object directly in the middle of the screen, which would be a child of the root quadtree node. It would need to be tested against every other object on the screen in this implemention.

``````# Here's an example (TL = topleft, TR = topright, BL = bottomleft, BR = bottomright)
----------- -----------|-----------|------------                          ------
|                      |           |           |                         | root |    <---- Children = []
|                      |           |     a     |                          ------
|                      |           |           |                      TL  TR  BL  BR
------------d------------                     /    |    |    \
|                      |           |           |                   null   |   null   \
|                      |           |     b     |                       -----         -----
|                      |           |           | Children = [ d ] ->  | L1  |       | L1  |    <------ Children = [ c ]
----------- -----------------------|------------                       -----         -----
|                      |                       |                 TL  TR  BL  BR       TL  TR  BL  BR
|                      |                       |                /    |   |     \      /    |   |    \
|                      |                       |              null   |  null    \   null null null null
c                               -----       -----
|                      |                       |Children = [ a ]->| L2  |     | L2  | <------ Children = [ b ]
|                      |                       |                   -----       -----
|                      |                       |
----------- -----------|----------- ------------

# You can see that 'c' is on a completely different branch of the tree, so it doesn't need to be tested against a and b.
# a and b are also in different branches, so they also need to be tested.
# d is on the parent node of both a and b. It needs to be checked against both a and b.``````
``````/**
* This is a full implementation of the demo above. A lot of the stuff in here
* is just to make it show up on the screen.
**/

/** Helper methods... */
class Helpers{
/** Create a random color. But can define some constants. */
static RandomColor(red : number = undefined, green : number = undefined, blue : number = undefined) : string {
let r = red != undefined ? red : Math.random() * 256;
let b = blue != undefined ? blue : Math.random() * 256;
let g = green != undefined ? green : Math.random() * 256;
let a = 0.4;

return "rgba(" + r + "," + g + "," + b + "," + a + ")";
}

/** Remove an item from an array. */
static Remove<T>(array : Array<T>, item : T){
let index = array.indexOf(item);
if(index == -1){
throw "Element does not exist";
}
array.splice(index, 1);
}
}

/** A  2 dimensional vector */
class Vector{
public x : number;
public y : number;

constructor(x : number = 0, y : number = 0){
this.x = x;
this.y = y;
}

/** The distance between two vectors. */
static dist(a : Vector, b : Vector) : number{
return Math.sqrt(Math.pow(b.x - a.x, 2) + Math.pow(b.y - a.y, 2));
}

/** The dot product of two vectors. */
static dot(a : Vector, b : Vector) : number{
return a.x * b.x + a.y * b.y;
}

/** Add this to another vector. And a new vector with the product. */
add(v : Vector) : Vector{
return new Vector(v.x + this.x, v.y + this.y);
}

/** Subtract another vector from this one, and return a new vector with the product. */
subtract(v : Vector) : Vector {
return new Vector(this.x - v.x, this.y - v.y);
}

/** Multiply this vector by a scale, and return new vector with the product. */
scale(scale : number){
return new Vector(this.x * scale, this.y * scale);
}

// Copy this vector
clone(){
return new Vector(this.x, this.y);
}

/** Flip this vector around. */
invert(){
return new Vector(-1 * this.x, -1 * this.y);
}

/** Find the magnitude of this vector. */
magnitude(){
return Math.sqrt(this.x * this.x + this.y * this.y);
}

/** Normalize this vector to a length of 1. */
normalize(){
var mag = this.magnitude();
return new Vector(this.x / mag, this.y / mag);
}
}

/** The bounding circle class. */
class BoundingCircle{
readonly position : Vector;

constructor(position : Vector, radius : number){
this.position = position;
}

topLeft() : Vector{
return new Vector(this.position.x - this.radius, this.position.y - this.radius);
}

bottomRight() : Vector{
return new Vector(this.position.x + this.radius, this.position.y + this.radius);
}
}

/** Properties for physics */
class PhysicsProperties{
position : Vector;
velocity : Vector;
acceleration : Vector;
mass : number;

constructor(){
this.position = new Vector();
this.velocity = new Vector();
this.mass = 100000;
this.acceleration = new Vector();
}

/** Get the bounding circle for this object. */
getBounds() : BoundingCircle{
let circle = new BoundingCircle(this.position, this.radius);
return circle;
}

/** A fully elastic collision between two circles. */
processColission(other : PhysicsProperties)
{
let mcalc = other.mass * 2 / (this.mass + other.mass);

let postDiff = this.position.subtract(other.position);
let velocityDiff = this.velocity.subtract(other.velocity);
let dot = Vector.dot(velocityDiff, postDiff);
let magnitude = postDiff.magnitude();

let scalar = mcalc * dot / (magnitude * magnitude);

let v1 = this.velocity.subtract(postDiff.scale(scalar));

mcalc = this.mass * 2 / (this.mass + other.mass);
postDiff = other.position.subtract(this.position);
velocityDiff = other.velocity.subtract(this.velocity);
dot = Vector.dot(velocityDiff, postDiff);
magnitude = postDiff.magnitude();
scalar = mcalc * dot / (magnitude * magnitude);

let v2 = other.velocity.subtract(postDiff.scale(scalar));

this.velocity = v1;
other.velocity = v2;
}
}

/** Context which is passed on each update. */
class UpdateContext{

/** The milliseconds since the last update. */
public readonly deltaMilliseconds : number;

/** The width of the land. */
public readonly width : number;

/** The height of the land. */
public readonly height : number;

/** The current time. */
public readonly currentTime : number;

constructor(deltaMS : number, width : number, height : number, currentTime : number){
this.deltaMilliseconds = deltaMS;
this.width = width;
this.height = height;
this.currentTime = currentTime;
}
}

/** Context passed to the draw call. */
class DrawContext{

/** The graphics context. */
public readonly graphics : CanvasRenderingContext2D;

constructor(context : CanvasRenderingContext2D){
this.graphics = context;
}
}

/** An updateable class. */
abstract class GameComponent{

/** Update. Return true if this item needs to be deleted. */
abstract update(context : UpdateContext) : boolean;

public physics : PhysicsProperties;
}

/** A draweable class. */
abstract class DrawableGameComponent extends GameComponent{
abstract draw(context : DrawContext);
}

/** The physics controller. */
class PhysicsController extends GameComponent{

readonly compontents : Array<PhysicsProperties>

constructor(worldSize : Vector){
super();
this.compontents = new Array<PhysicsProperties>();
}

/** Update the physics controller. Updates collisions and the quad tree */
update(context : UpdateContext) : boolean{
return false;
}

/** Add an item. */
this.compontents.push(item);
}
}

/** A ball on the screen. */
class Ball extends DrawableGameComponent{

physics : PhysicsProperties;
protected color : string;

constructor(position : Vector, velocity : Vector, radius : number, color: string){
super();
this.physics = new PhysicsProperties();
this.physics.position = position;
this.physics.velocity = velocity;
this.physics.mass = Math.PI * radius * radius;
this.color = color;
}

static CreateRandom(bounds: Vector, minRadius: number, maxRadius: number, minVelocity: Vector, maxVelocity: Vector)
{
let position = new Vector(Math.random() * (bounds.x - radius) + radius, Math.random() * (bounds.y - radius) + radius);
let velocity = new Vector((Math.random() * (maxVelocity.x - minVelocity.x) + minVelocity.x) * (Math.random() > 0.5 ? 1 : -1 ), (Math.random() * (maxVelocity.y - minVelocity.y) + minVelocity.y) * (Math.random() > 0.5 ? 1 : -1 ));

return new Ball(position, velocity, radius, Helpers.RandomColor(0, 0, undefined));
}

/** Update properties of the ball  */
update(context : UpdateContext) : boolean{

this.physics.acceleration = new Vector()

/** Bounce off the walls. */
if(this.physics.position.x - this.physics.radius <= 0 || this.physics.position.x + this.physics.radius >= context.width){
this.physics.velocity.x *= -1;
}

if(this.physics.position.y - this.physics.radius <= 0 || this.physics.position.y + this.physics.radius >= context.height){
this.physics.velocity.y *= -1;
}

// Update the movement
this.physics.position = this.physics.position.add(this.physics.velocity.scale(context.deltaMilliseconds / 1000));
return false;
}

/** Draw the ball */
draw(context : DrawContext){

context.graphics.beginPath();
context.graphics.fillStyle = this.color;
context.graphics.ellipse(
this.physics.position.x,
this.physics.position.y,
0,
0,
Math.PI * 2);
context.graphics.fill();
context.graphics.closePath();
}
}

/** A quadtree */
{
/** The maximum depth. */
private readonly maxLevels : number;

/** The root node. */

/** The size of the map. */
private readonly size : Vector;

/** The list of components. */
private readonly components : Array<ComponentWrapper>

public collisionsProcessed : number;

constructor(maxLevels : number, size : Vector){
this.maxLevels = maxLevels;
this.root = new QuadTreeNode(1, this.maxLevels, null, new Vector(), size.clone());

this.components = new Array<ComponentWrapper>();
}

/** Get the root node. */
return this.root;
}

/** Add a component to the tree. */
let wrapper = new ComponentWrapper(component, null);
this.components.push(wrapper);
this.getFittingNode(wrapper);
}

/** Update the entire tree. */
Update(){
for(let i = 0; i < this.components.length; i++){
let component = this.components[i];

this.root.GetNodeForComponent(component);
}

this.collisionsProcessed = 0;
this.UpdateRecursive(this.root, new Array<PhysicsProperties>());
}

/** Update each node, test for collisions. */
private UpdateRecursive(node : QuadTreeNode, list : Array<PhysicsProperties>){

/** Base case, exit. */
if(node == null){
return;
}

/** For every component on the node. */
for(let i = 0; i < node.components.length; i++){

/** Process every other component on the node. */
for(let c = i + 1; c < node.components.length; c++){
this.TestCollision(node.components[i].component, node.components[c].component);
}

/** Process everything which is currently in the list. AKA on a parent node. */
for(let c = 0; c < list.length; c++){
this.TestCollision(node.components[i].component, list[c]);
}
}

/** Add everything to the list, so child nodes can check for collisions against them. */
for(let i = 0; i < node.components.length; i++){
list.push(node.components[i].component);
}

/** Update all child nodes. */
this.UpdateRecursive(node.TopLeft, list);
this.UpdateRecursive(node.BottomLeft, list);
this.UpdateRecursive(node.TopRight, list);
this.UpdateRecursive(node.BottomRight, list);

/** Pop everything off the list to continue upwards. */
for(let i = 0; i < node.components.length; i++){
list.pop();
}
}

/** Test a collision between two physics objexts. */
private TestCollision(a : PhysicsProperties, b : PhysicsProperties)
{
let boundsA = a.getBounds();
let boundsB = b.getBounds();

let dist = Vector.dist(boundsA.position, boundsB.position);

// Update the count.
this.collisionsProcessed++;

return;
}

b.processColission(a);
}

/** This method is stupid. delete it. */
private getFittingNode(component : ComponentWrapper) : QuadTreeNode{
let node = this.root.GetNodeForComponent(component);
return node;
}
}

/** A node of the quad tree. */
{
/** The child nodes. */

/** The maximum depth. */
private readonly maxDepth : number;

/** The current depth */
public readonly depth : number;

/** The top left corner of the node. */
public readonly topLeftBound : Vector;

/** The bottom right corner of the node. */
public readonly bottomRightBound : Vector;

/** The center of the node. */
public readonly centerBound : Vector;

/** The components attached to the node. */
public readonly components : Array<ComponentWrapper>

/** The parent tree node. */

constructor(depth : number, maxDepth : number, parent : QuadTreeNode, topLeftBound : Vector, bottomRightBound : Vector){
this.depth = depth;
this.maxDepth = maxDepth;
this.cells = new Array(4);
this.topLeftBound = topLeftBound;
this.bottomRightBound = bottomRightBound;
this.centerBound = new Vector((this.topLeftBound.x + this.bottomRightBound.x) / 2, (this.topLeftBound.y + this.bottomRightBound.y) / 2);
this.components = new Array<ComponentWrapper>();
this.parent = parent;
}

return this.cells[0];
}

return this.cells[1];
}

return this.cells[2];
}

return this.cells[3];
}

/** Get the deepest possible node for a component on the tree.
* Also prunes the tree if the component has left its node, and the node is empty.
*/
GetNodeForComponent(wrapper : ComponentWrapper) : QuadTreeNode{
let bounds = wrapper.component.getBounds();
let tlNode = this.GetCellIndex(bounds.topLeft());
let brNode = this.GetCellIndex(bounds.bottomRight());

/** If we aren't at the max depth, and topleft/bottom right bounds fall within the same index,
* then pass the responsibility to a child node. */
if(tlNode == brNode && this.depth < this.maxDepth){
}

/** If the cell has just entered the current node. Then add to this collection, and prune the old node */
if(wrapper.node != this)
{
this.components.push(wrapper);

if(wrapper.node != null){
Helpers.Remove(wrapper.node.components, wrapper);
wrapper.node.Prune();
}
}

/** Then set this as the current node. */
wrapper.node = this;
return this;
}

private GetCellIndex(point : Vector){
let left = point.x < this.centerBound.x;
let top = point.y < this.centerBound.y;

// 0 2
// 1 3
return (top ? 0 : 1) + (left ? 0 : 2);
}

/** Removes the current tree node, if it is empty **/
private Prune(){
if(this.components.length > 0 || this.parent == null){
return;
}

this.parent.PruneChild(this);
}

/** Removes the provided child node.  */
private PruneChild(child : QuadTreeNode){
let index = this.cells.indexOf(child);
this.cells[index] = null;
this.Prune();
}

/** Gets or creates a new quad tree node. */
if(this.cells[index] == null){
this.cells[index] = new QuadTreeNode(
this.depth + 1,
this.maxDepth,
this,
new Vector(
index < 2 ? this.topLeftBound.x : this.centerBound.x,
index % 2 == 0 ? this.topLeftBound.y : this.centerBound.y),
new Vector(
index < 2 ? this.centerBound.x : this.bottomRightBound.x,
index % 2 == 0 ? this.centerBound.y : this.bottomRightBound.y
));
}

return this.cells[index];
}
}

/** Wrapper item used by the quad tree. Maps physics properties to a quad tree node. */
class ComponentWrapper{
public component : PhysicsProperties;
public node : QuadTreeNode;

constructor(component : PhysicsProperties, node : QuadTreeNode){
this.component = component;
this.node = node;
}
}

/** Draws the quad tree */
class QuadTreeDrawer extends DrawableGameComponent{
physics : PhysicsProperties;

private tree : QuadTree;
super();
this.tree = tree;
this.physics = null;
}

/** Update. Does nothing, but required by game component. */
update(context : UpdateContext) : boolean{
return false;
}

/** Draw the quad tree. */
draw(context : DrawContext){
context.graphics.beginPath();
context.graphics.strokeStyle = 'red';
this.drawRecursive(this.tree.getRoot(), context.graphics);
context.graphics.closePath();
}

/** Draw a quad tree node. And its children. */
private drawRecursive(node : QuadTreeNode, graphics : CanvasRenderingContext2D){
if(node == null){
return;
}

this.drawRecursive(node.TopLeft, graphics);
this.drawRecursive(node.BottomLeft, graphics);

graphics.strokeRect(node.topLeftBound.x, node.topLeftBound.y, (node.bottomRightBound.x - node.topLeftBound.x), (node.bottomRightBound.y - node.topLeftBound.y));

this.drawRecursive(node.TopRight, graphics);
this.drawRecursive(node.BottomRight, graphics);
}
}

/** Runs update logic, and executes update/draw on components.  */
class GameController
{
private drawInterval: number;
private updateInterval: number;

private graphics : CanvasRenderingContext2D;
private canvas : HTMLCanvasElement;

private components : Array<GameComponent>;
private drawables : Array<DrawableGameComponent>
private phsyicsController : PhysicsController;

private previousContext : UpdateContext;

constructor(canvas: HTMLCanvasElement){
this.canvas = canvas;
this.graphics = canvas.getContext("2d");

this.components = new Array<GameComponent>();
this.phsyicsController = new PhysicsController(new Vector(this.canvas.width, this.canvas.height));
this.drawables = new Array<DrawableGameComponent>();

}

public run(){
// The default update context
this.previousContext = new UpdateContext(0, this.canvas.width, this.canvas.height, Date.now());
if(!this.drawInterval){
this.drawInterval = window.setInterval(() => this.draw(), 10);
}
if(!this.updateInterval){
this.updateInterval = window.setInterval(() => this.update(), 10);
}
}

public stop(){
if(this.drawInterval){
window.clearInterval(this.drawInterval);
this.drawInterval = null;
}
if(this.updateInterval){
window.clearInterval(this.updateInterval);
this.updateInterval = null;
}
}

public addComponent(component : GameComponent){
this.components.push(component);

if(component instanceof DrawableGameComponent){
this.drawables.push(component);
}

if(component.physics != null){
}
}

public clear(){
for(let i = 0; i < this.components.length; i++){
this.components.pop();
}
}

get UpdateablesCount() : number{
return this.components.length;
}

get DraweablesCount() : number{
return this.drawables.length;
}

get Physics() : PhysicsController{
return this.phsyicsController;
}

private update(){
let now = Date.now();
let updateContext = new UpdateContext(now - this.previousContext.currentTime, this.canvas.width, this.canvas.height, now);
this.previousContext = updateContext;

this.phsyicsController.update(updateContext);

for(let i = this.components.length - 1; i >= 0; i--){
if(this.components[i].update(updateContext)){
this.components.splice(i, 1);
}
}
}

private draw(){

let drawContenxt = new DrawContext(this.graphics);
this.graphics.fillStyle = 'rgba(100, 100, 100, 0.2)';
this.graphics.fillRect(0, 0, this.canvas.width, this.canvas.height);

for(let i = this.drawables.length - 1; i >= 0; i--){
this.drawables[i].draw(drawContenxt);
}
}
}

/** outputs diagnostic data to the screen. */
class Diagnostics extends DrawableGameComponent{

private readonly gameController : GameController;
private readonly startPosition : Vector;

constructor(gameController : GameController){
super()
this.gameController = gameController;

this.startPosition = new Vector(0, 16);
}

update(context : UpdateContext) : boolean{
return false;
}

draw(context : DrawContext){
context.graphics.beginPath();
context.graphics.font = '16px monospaced'
context.graphics.fillStyle = 'white';
context.graphics.fillText("updateables: " + this.gameController.UpdateablesCount, this.startPosition.x, this.startPosition.y);
context.graphics.fillText("draweables: " + this.gameController.UpdateablesCount, this.startPosition.x, this.startPosition.y + 16);
context.graphics.fillText("collisions tested: " + this.gameController.Physics.quadTree.collisionsProcessed, this.startPosition.x, this.startPosition.y + 32);
context.graphics.closePath();
}
}

/** Main class. */
class Main {

private canvas : HTMLCanvasElement;
private controller : GameController;

constructor(parent) {
this.initializeCanvas(parent);
this.controller = new GameController(this.canvas);
}
run() {
this.controller.run();
}
stop() {
this.controller.stop();
}
initializeTest() {
//window.onkeydown = (event) => {
//    if(event.charCode === 0){
//        // Spacebar
//    }
//}
this.canvas.onclick = (event) => {
//let ball = new Ball(new Vector(event.offsetX - 15, event.offsetY - 15), new Vector(), 15, 'red')
};
}
AddRandomBall(count = 20) {
for (let i = 0; i < count; i++) {
var ball = Ball.CreateRandom(new Vector(this.canvas.width, this.canvas.height), 2, 4, new Vector(30, 30), new Vector(180, 180));
}
}
EnableDiagnostics() {
let diagnostic = new Diagnostics(this.controller);
}
initializeCanvas(parent) {
this.canvas = document.createElement('canvas');
this.canvas.width = parent.clientWidth;
this.canvas.height = Math.floor(parent.clientWidth * 0.6);
parent.appendChild(this.canvas);
}
}
function Run(arg = null) {
if (null === arg || undefined === arg) {
arg = document.currentScript.parentElement;
}
let m = new Main(arg);
m.initializeTest();
m.EnableDiagnostics();
m.run();
}

Run();``````